Object Title





Object Number



Transferred from the Rotunda Museum of Artillery at Woolwich, England, in 1927. Originally from Rhodes, via Lefroy, in 1867.

Physical Description

Formed of one piece, with a single sight and deep brim and short tail. The skull is low and rounded, with a sharp bump at the rear, and is embossed with a sharp medial ridge running the full length of the helmet, rising over the skull in a low comb. The brim flares only slightly. The line formed by the change of angle between it and the skull is almost level all round, rising only at the front where it runs into the angle of the flange above the sight. The sight is stepped, with its lower edge embossed forwards, producing a concave section in the front of the brim. The lower edge is almost level, dipping down slightly at either side, and has a very narrow, flattened, outward turn over wire. The comb is pierced at the centre with a small, transverse slot, which tapers to a hole on the inside of the skull. Around the base of the skull is a line of six rivets for the attachment of a lining.

Featured in

Hundred Years War


Dimensions: Height 260 mm, width (internal) 194 mm, (external) 364 mm, depth (internal) 238 mm, (external) 332 mm Weight: 3.01 kg

Inscriptions and Marks

At the lower left rear of the brim is stamped the Rotunda number, MA 2278.


Bibliographic References

Official Catalogue of the Museum of Artillery in the Rotunda, London, 1874: 139, no. 2278

Official Catalogue of the Museum of Artillery in the Rotunda, Woolwich, London, 1889: 149, no. 16.209

G F Laking, A Record of European Armour and Arms, lONDON, 1920, II: 26, fig. 369

C J ffoulkes, 'Armour from the Rotunda, Woolwich, Transferred to the Armouries of the Tower, 1927' Archaeologia LXXVII 1927: 61-72 pl. 13.1

C J ffoulkes, Rotunda Museum, Apollo, 1928, 8.43: 20, 22

Claude Blair, European Armour, B T Batsford Ltd, London, 1958: 200-1.

A R Dufty and W Reid, European Armour in the Tower of London, 1968, plate LXXIX a

H M Curtis, 2,500 years of European helmets. Beinfield, North Hollywood, 1978: 110-11

W J Karcheski Jr and T Richardson, The medieval armour from Rhodes, Leeds, Royal Armouries 2000: no. 2.1

C. Paggiarino, The Royal Armouries, masterpieces of medieval and renaissance arms and armour, Milan, 2011, volume 1


This sallet is comparable with a number of pieces made in southern Germany, most of which have a shallow brim, for example, Metropolitan Museum no. 04.3.229, attributed to Adrian Treytz of Innsbruck (Thomas 1974: 184, fig. 117). The closest examples include one from Nuremberg with a slightly shallower brim; one from the collection of Bashford Dean, now in the Metropolitan Museum (Grancsay & Kienbusch 1933: 123, no. 36, pl. iii); and a reduced, excavated helmet datable to the fall of Constantinople in 1453, in the Serail, ??? Istanbul (St÷cklein 1937; this may now be in the Askeri M³ze, Istanbul).
Metallurgy Report: A detached flake from the inside was examined. The microstructure contains pearlite, in varying proportions, and ferrite, with very little visible slag, with about 0.6%C. This steel has been worked above the critical range, then allowed to cool slowly