Object Title





Object Number



Old Tower Collection

Physical Description

The skull is made in one piece, with a low comb and a T-shaped face opening. The edge of the face opening is reinforced with steel strip. The metallurgy was investigated by Alan Williams: it contains ferrite in small grains, a little pearlite and a few large, elongated slag inclusions. It is a mild steel (less then 0.1% C) allowed to air cool after forging, from a temperature just above the critcal range (900 C). Microhardness 117 Kg/mm-2.


Dimensions: Height: 265 mm; width: 210 mm; depth: 285 mm

Inscriptions and Marks

Stamped with a bull's head and split cross over IDB twice.


Places Italy, Milan

Bibliographic References

A.R. Dufty and W. Reid, European Armour in the Tower of London, 1968, plate LXXIV.

C. Paggiarino, The Royal Armouries, masterpieces of medieval and renaissance arms and armour, Milan, 2011, volume 1


There is another in the KW Museum, Cologne, formerly in the Clemens collections. For the attribution see C A de Cosson, letter to the Burlington Magazine, XXXVI, 1920: 96-7 and B Thomas and O Gamber, L'arte Milanese dell'armatura, Storio di Milano.