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Said to have been acquired by Sir J. Lefroy from Rhodes, 1855. Not part of the Rotunda collection; possibly from the imperial Ottoman arsenal in the mosque of St. Irene, Istanbul, 1855-9.

Physical Description

Formed of one piece, with a single sight. The skull is rounded, and embossed with a low medial keel running the full length of the helmet. At the rear is a short but deep tail. The sides flare sharply from the junction with the skull, and the lower edge, which is outwardly turned, dips down slightly at either side and rises to a point at the front. Around the base of the skull, level with the sight, is a line of eight lining-rivet holes. The sight is wide and narrow, with a slight flange above, and a step below. Below the step the front profile is sharply concave. At either side of the tail is a flush rivet with an internal head; this may be for the attachment of a leather tab for an extension of the chin strap, or a contemporary repair of some sort. There is a recent medial hole at the tail.


Dimensions: height 224 mm, width (internal) 185 mm, (external) 254 mm, depth (internal) 185 mm, (external) 377 mm Weight: 1.87 kg

Inscriptions and Marks

At either side of the keel at the front, by the lower edge, is stamped the horseshoe mark attributed to Christian Treytz.


Bibliographic References

A R Dufty and W Reid, European Armour in the Tower of London, 1968: pl. ii, lxxix

C J ffoulkes, Inventory and Survey of the Armouries of the Tower of London, Vol. 1, London, 1916: 173, 92 with no. II.3

B Thomas, Die Innsbrucker Plattnerkunst, eine Nachtrag. Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, 70, 1974: 179-220: pl. 119

W J Karcheski Jr and T Richardson, The medieval armour from Rhodes, Leeds, Royal Armouries 2000: no. 2.3


Now on Gothic horse armour, II.3 Another closely related sallet by the same maker and of the same form is Stockholm SHM 3504, while closely related are the sallets by Adrian Treytz in the Metropolitan Museum, no. 04.3.229, Odescalchi collection, Rome, no. 29 or 760 and in the Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt (Thomas 1974: figs 115-20, Eaves & Richardson 1990: 22, note 74). What appears to be the same mark is found on a sallet in the City Art Museum of St. Louis, Missouri, USA, no. 58.39 (Hoopes 1954: 8 fig. 9 check, they can't both be!!). Yet another example is in the Armeria reale, Turin, no. 48 (Terenzi 1967: 343, no. 65). The suggestion of Istanbul as the provenance of iv.15 stems from W Karcheski; compare for example a near-identical helmet preserved there in 1919-20 (Pyhrr 1989: 93, fig. 15a).