Object Title

Mail and plate helmet (kolah zereh)

Mail and plate helmet (kolah zereh)



Object Number



Purchased at auction, G. Robins, Laing's Shooting Gallery, Haymarket, London, 10 June 1833, lot 53 (or purchased from a Mr Bentley following the sale). From Tong Castle, Shropshire; given by the Rev. Thomas Buckridge, Vicar of Tong 1777-85 to R. Greene of Lichfield, Staffordshire for his museum, dispersed at his death in 1793; purchased 1800 by William Bullock for his museum in Liverpool; transferred to the London Museum and Pantherion, 1809; sold to Mr Gwennap in 1816 for the Oplotheca, 20 Lower Brook St., London.

Physical Description

Composed of bands of plate running round the skull, and fitted with a complete aventail of mail with a V-shaped cut out for the face.


Dimensions: height 67.5cm (26.5in)

Inscriptions and Marks



Bibliographic References

F. Grose, A treatise on ancient armour, London, 1786, pl. xxi.

W. Bullock, A companion to the Liverpool Museum, Hull, 1808, pp. 86-7 and frontis.

W. Bullock, A companion to Mr Bullock's London Museum and Pantherion, london, 1812, p. 23.

Catalogue of a most splendid and instructive collection of antient armour, exhibiting at the Oplotheca, London, 1816, p. 22.

Gothic Hall, Pall Mall, Catalogue of the splendid collection of antient armour, London, 1818, p. 14, no. 31, as 'armour of a Crusader...being of the time of King Stephen'.

Royal Armoury, Haymarket, Descriptive catalogue of a very costly and superb collection of military antiquities, London, n.d. (c.1820), no. 2, 'the armour of a Norman Crusader and his barbed horse...'.

A new and improved history and description of the Tower of London, London, 1834, pp. 26-7.

J. Hewitt, The Tower, its history, armouries and antiquities, London, 1834, p. 50 and fp.; idem 1845, pp. 74-5; idem 1854, pp. 63-4.

J. Hewitt, Official catalogue of the Tower Armouries, London, 1859, no. xv.389, p. 110.

Viscount Dillon, Illustrated guide to the Armouries, London, 1910, no. xv.15, p. 29, pl. 29.

H.R. Robinson, Oriental armour, London, 1967, pl. xix.c.

A. Borg, 'A Crusader in borrowed armour', Country Life,, 18 July 1974.

T. Richardson, 'The Tong Crusader', Country Life, 2 April 1987, pp. 98-9.

C. Bayly, The Raj, London, 1990, no. 105, p. 97.

S. Z. Haider, Islamic arms and armour of Muslim India, Lahore, 1991, pl. 42.