Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48THE TOWER OF LONDON. GENERAL SKETCH. THE Tower of London was first built by William the onqueror, for the purpose of protecting and controlling he city. As first planned, it lay within the city walls, ut its enlargement late in the 12th century carried ts boundaries eastward beyond the walls. Part there­ ore of the Tower is in the City of ·London, and part utside the city, but it forms, with its surrounding forti­ fications, a precinct in itself. It covers an area of 18 acres within the Garden rails. The present buildings are partly of the Norman period; but architecture of almost all the styles which have flourished in England may be found within the walls. It is well to remember that though the Tower is no longer a place of great military strength it has in time past been a fortress, a palace, and a prison, and to view it rightly we must regard it in this threefold aspect. The oldest, and most important building is the Great Tower or Keep, called the "White Tower." The Inner Ward is defended by a wall, flanked by thirteen towers, the entrance to it being on the south side under the Bloody Tower. The outer Ward is defended by a second wall, flanked by six Towers on the river face (see Pl. IX. X. and XL), and by three semicircular bastions on the north face. A Ditch or "Moat," now dry, encircles the whole, crossed at the south-western angle by a stone bridge, leading to the " Byward Tower" from the "Middle Tower," a gateway which had formerly an outwork, called the "Lion Tower." The Tower was occupied as a palace by all our Kings and Queens down to Charles II. It was the custom for each monarch to lodge in the Tower before his corona­ tion, and to ride in proceRsion to Westminster through the city. The Palace buildings stood eastward of the "Bloody Tower." C t b i f o